The precise incidence of CSCC is difficult to pinpoint due to the exclusion of NMSC from cancer registries.2,3
CSCC incidence has been reported to have increased by 50% to 200% over the past 30 years.2
Due to increased UV exposure, CSCC incidence is greater in the southern half of the US (UV sun zone 2), where the number of deaths from CSCC may exceed that of melanoma and other common cancer types.2
While most early-stage CSCC is curable with complete surgical excision and/or radiation, certain factors increase the likelihood of recurrence and metastasis.6,20‑22
References: 1. Rogers HW, Weinstock MA, Feldman SR, Coldiron BM. Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (keratinocyte carcinomas) in the US population, 2012. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(10):1081-1086. 2. Karia PS, Han J, Schmults CD. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: estimated incidence of disease, nodal metastasis, and deaths from disease in the United States, 2012. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68(6):957-966. 3. Thompson AK, Kelley BF, Prokop LJ, Murad MH, Baum CL. Risk factors for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma recurrence, metastasis, and disease-specific death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(4):419-428. 4. Burton KA, Ashack KA, Khachemoune A. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a review of high-risk and metastatic disease [published online June 29, 2016]. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016;17(5):491-508. doi:10.1007/s40257-016-0207-3. 5. Lomas A, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath-Hextall F. A systematic review of worldwide incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166(5):1069-1080. 6. Califano JA, Lydiatt WM, Nehal KS, et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In: Amin MB, Edge SB, Greene FL, et al, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. Springer; 2017:171-181. 7. Rowe DE, Carroll RJ, Day CL Jr. Prognostic factors for local recurrence, metastasis, and survival rates in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, ear, and lip: implications for treatment modality selection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26(6):976-990. 8. LeBoit PE, Burg G, Weedon D, Sarasin A, eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumours. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2006. 9. Motaparthi K, Kapil JP, Velazquez EF. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: review of the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging guidelines, prognostic factors, and histopathologic variants. Adv Anat Pathol. 2017;24(4):171-194. 10. Nikolaou V, Stratigos AJ, Tsao H. Hereditary nonmelanoma skin cancer. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012;31(4):204-210. 11. Rubió-Casadevall J, Hernandez-Pujol AM, Ferreira-Santos MC, et al. Trends in incidence and survival analysis in non-melanoma skin cancer from 1994 to 2012 in Girona, Spain: a population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;45:6-10. 12. Clayman GL, Lee JJ, Holsinger FC, et al. Mortality risk from squamous cell skin cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(4):759-765. 13. Asgari MM, Moffet HH, Ray GT, Quesenberry CP. Trends in basal cell carcinoma incidence and identification of high-risk subgroups, 1998-2012. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(9):976-981. 14. Karagas MR, McDonald JA, Greenberg ER, et al. Risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers after ionizing radiation therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996;88(24):1848-1853. 15. Lydiatt WM, Patel SG, Ridge JA, O’Sullivan B, Shah JP. Staging head and neck cancers. In: Amin MB, Edge SB, Greene FL, et al, eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. Springer; 2017:55-65. 16. Cancer stat facts: oral cavity and pharynx cancer. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program website. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/oralcav.html. Accessed January 29, 2018. 17. Vigneswaran N, Williams MD. Epidemiologic trends in head and neck cancer and aids in diagnosis. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2014;26(2):123-141. 18. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(1):7-30. 19. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer screening (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute website. https://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/oral-screening-pdq. Updated February 9, 2018. Accessed March 13, 2018. 20. Skin cancer treatment (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute website. https://www.cancer.gov/types/skin/hp/skin-treatment-pdq. Updated February 1, 2018. Accessed February 13, 2018. 21. Jennings L, Schmults CD. Management of high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2010;3(4):39-48. 22. Stratigos A, Garbe C, Lebbe C, et al, on behalf of European Dermatology Forum, European Association of Dermato-Oncology, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Diagnosis and treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(14):1989-2007.